Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Adaptation to Climate Change Program


Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Adaptation to Climate Change Program:
 
In order to secure the poor people from disasters, CISD has incorporated disaster management activities in its development program which is closely related to poverty alleviation. CISD’s interventions on disaster risk reduction thus aim at contributing to improve living conditions of the people by reducing vulnerabilities to disaster through building their capacity to face disaster; efficiently to manage the situations during hazard and find ways for early response and recovery.
 
Major objectives of the project are to:
 
  • Create social safety net for the disaster-affected beneficiaries.
  • Provide permanent income source to ultra poor members by establishing different IGAs throughout the year.
  • Develop skill through training.
  • To raise awareness of community peoples in local level on climate change impact on health;
  • To raise awareness of community peoples to receive health services accesses from the Community Clinic;
  • To assist the participants in understanding of the Climate Change Impact on health.
     
Major Projects:
 
a. Community Level Training Program on Climate Change Impact on Health
 
b. Adaptation Alternation for Safe Drinking Water in Salinity Prone Coastal Area
 
c. Disaster Risk Reduction/Enhance Resilience (DRR/ER) Project
 
a. Community Level Training Program on Climate Change Impact on Health : 
 
According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), climate change and variability will have significant impacts on food security and malnutrition. Climate Change will lead to more intense and longer droughts than have been observed over wider areas since 1970, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. In addition, the frequency of heavy precipitation events has increased over most land areas. It is very likely that waves and heavy precipitation events will continue to become more frequent and that future tropical cyclones will become more intense. It is primarily via these impacts that climate change will have negative effects on food security and nutrition. Droughts and water scarcity diminish dietary diversity and reduce overall food consumption and this may lead to malnutrition problems including under-nutrition protein-energy malnutrition and or micronutrient deficiencies. The risk of flooding of human settlements may increase, from both sea-level rise and increased heavy precipitation in coastal areas. This is likely to result in an increase in the number of peoples exposed to diarrhoeal and other infectious diseases thus lowering their capacity to utilize food effectively. Global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide have increased markedly since 1950 as a result of human activities. By 2005, the global atmospheric concentration of CO2 far exceeded the natural range of the preceding 6,50,000 years. Total temperature increases during the 20th century have been 0.760C. Average arctic temperatures increased at almost twice the global average rate during the past 100 years. 
 
Continued GHG emissions at or above current rates would cause further warning and induce may changes in the global climate system during the 21st century that would very likely be larger than those observed during the 20th century. The best estimate for the low scenario, among the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) projected by the 4th IPCC assessment, is an increase 1.80C and the best estimate for the high SRES scenario is 4.00C. Mountain glaciers and snow cover have declined on average in both hemispheres. During the course of the century, water supplies stored in glaciers and snow cover are projected to decline, reducing water availability in regions supplied by melt water from major mountain ranges; these regions are home to more than one-sixth of the world’s population. Widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps have contributed to sea-level rise. According to the 4th IPCC Report’s estimations for unmitigated emissions, the sea level will rise by 40 centimetres by 2080s, with 60 percent of this increase occurring in South Asia and 20 percent in South East Asia.
 
In this context, Climate Change and Health Promotion Unit (CCHPU) of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has been Implementing the Risk Reduction of Climate Change Impact on Heath Project with the financial assistance of the Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund of the Ministry of Environment and Forest of the Government of Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh. As a development partner of CCHPU, CISD has been implemented Community Level Training Program on Climate Change Impact on Health. Under this project CISD has been conducted training for staff, members and community peoples in 500 Community Clinics in 8 districts.
 
Objectives of the Project:
 
General Objective: 
 
The general objective of the assignment is to conduct training program on awareness raising on effects of climate change on health for the community peoples in local level in the selected areas.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
 
Specific Objective:
 
1. To raise awareness of community peoples in local level on climate change impact on health;
2. To raise awareness of community peoples to receive health services accesses from the Community Clinic;
3. To assist the participants in understanding of the Climate Change Impact on Health.
4. To explain CC management committee’s contribution in the process of CC operation and management.
 
Project Activities :
 
The main assignment of the project will be the training conduction on Climate and Health for the community peoples in local level specially Members of the Community Clinic Management Committee, Community Health Care Providers (CHCP), Health Assistant, Family Welfare Assistant (FWA), local elected representatives, school teachers and local elites. Under this project CISD has been conducted total 500 training sessions for 2 days for 500 community clinics in the selected working district.
 
b. Adaptation Alternation for Safe Drinking Water in Salinity Prone Coastal Area :
 
In a context where nearly a billion people lack access to safe drinking water, climate change constitutes an added obstacle to ensuring such access, and clearly a human rights concern. Climate change will, and already does, impact on people’s rights to safe water by causing floods and droughts, changes in precipitation and temperature extremes that result in water scarcity, contamination of drinking water and exacerbation of the spread of disease. Water scarcity may also result in increasing the cost of water provision. The poor, who are among the most vulnerable, are also likely to be affected the most. Water is a key medium through which climate change impacts on human populations, society and ecosystems, particularly due to predicted changes in its quality and quantity. Despite this fact, water has not been sufficiently considered in the climate change negotiations. The human rights dimensions of water emphasize the impact of climate change on individuals and their ability to live a life in dignity. The way that water is managed will be a critical component for the success of any efforts to adapt to the impacts of climate change, in conformity with human rights obligations. 
 
Climate change will negatively impact on the quality of water. Increasing water temperatures, higher or lower groundwater levels, floods and droughts raise the threat of heightened micro-organisms, chemical substances and radiological hazards in drinking water. Floods and droughts will cause many forms of water pollution such as salinization of groundwater, intrusion of sediments, organic carbon, pathogens and pesticides, which impacts the health of the population. Floods and drought will deteriorate existing water infrastructure. Where long-term rainfall increases, groundwater levels may rise, decreasing the efficiency of natural purification processes, increasing risks of infectious disease and of exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore, ensuring the resilience of water infrastructure to climate change is a major climate change adaptation measure. Whether threatened by flooding or drought, water infrastructure needs to be made more robust and flexible. This requires new approaches and innovative technologies, sufficient infrastructure investments, capacity development, and technology transfer. Government and development partners (NGOs) have to ensure that these additional costs do not render access to water unaffordable. This can be done, for example, through targeted subsidies.
 
As water distribution patterns change dramatically, problems of acceptability of adaptation strategies will arise. Establishing water points facilities which are culturally unacceptable (because of their location, technology choice or other reason) should be prevented and addressed. Ensuring participation of the concerned community in the design and implementation of interventions is crucial in this regard.
 
In the context of climate change, it will be more than ever essential to ensure a non-discriminatory distribution of water resources and services. Government and development partners (NGOs) have both negative and positive obligations in guaranteeing the rights to water. For instance, the government has to adapt its water services infrastructure to make it more resilient to extreme weather events. It has to raise awareness about hygiene, water conservation and other issues relevant to enjoyment of the rights to water and sanitation in the context of climate change. In this context, Climate Change and Health Promotion Unit (CCHPU) of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has been Implementing the Risk Reduction of Climate Change Impact on Heath Project with the financial assistance of the Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund of the Ministry of Environment and Forest of the Government of Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh. As a development partner of CCHPU, CISD has been implemented the assignment for Adaptation to Climate Change titled on Adaptation Alternation for Safe Drinking Water in Salinity Prone Coastal Area. Under this project, CISD has been installed 3 Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant in Debhata, Kaliganj and Ashashuni upazila under Satkhira district. CISD will also implement the assignment for Adaptation to Climate Change titled on Installation Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant in Coastal Belt Project in Satkhira district in the year 2013. Under the project CISD will install additional 7 plants.
 
Overall Objective: 
 
The overall objective of the project is to reduce the incidence of water-borne diseases in the target communities, thereby contributing to an improvement in the public health conditions of the rural poor in the areas by enhancing the effectiveness of service providers to ensure among the local communities sustainable access to safe drinking water facilities.
 
Specific Objective :
 
a. To support the development of sustainable community managed and community-owned safe drinking water supply facilities;
b. To strengthen the capacity of members of Water Users’ Groups, in order to provide and maintain safe water supply facilities;
c. To reduce the incidence of water-borne diseases in the target communities;
d. To raise awareness on reduce water borne diseases and climate change impact on health in the disaster prone areas; and
e. To develop a community managed sustainable water management system in the project areas.
 
c. Disaster Risk Reduction/Enhance Resilience ((DRR/ER) Project:
 
CISD started Enhance Resilience (ER)  project since 2009 for the disaster affected-affected ultra poor people of Nesarabar upazila of Pirojpur district, Charfassion upazila of Bhola district and Daccope upazila of Khulna district. After successful completion of the ER, the project started its activities again from November 2011 in the name of Disaster Risk Reduction/ Enhance Resilience ((DRR/ER) project considering the issue of climate change. The project is being implemented in Kaliganj, Ashashuni and Debhata upazila of Satkhira district with the aim to reduce vulnerability of disaster-affected ultra poor people of the area. Help Bangladesh (OKLAHOMA) is financing for the project. The project has been designed to develop skills and disaster preparedness and survival capability during crisis and post- disaster period through Food for Training (FFT) and also to reinforce household food securities through Food for Assets (FFA). 
 
Major objectives of the project are to:
 
  • Reach ultra-poor rural women with a set of complementing inputs that will improve their nutrition and enhance their livelihood and self-reliance;
  • Improve food security and nutritional well being of ultra poor households.